By Ground Water Protection Council (U.S.); ALL Consulting (Firm); United States. Department of Energy. Office of Fossil Energy.; National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S.)
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Extra resources for Modern shale gas development in the United States : a primer
Shales are deposited as mud in low-energy depositional environments such as tidal flats and deep water basins where the fine-grained clay particles fall out of suspension in these quiet waters. During the deposition of these very fine-grained sediments, there can also be deposition of organic matter in the form of algae-, plant-, and animal-derived organic debris75. The naturally tabular clay grains tend to lie flat as the sediments accumulate and subsequently become compacted as a result of additional sediment deposition.
Unless done in accordance with a specific approved permit. The NPDES permit program controls discharges from point sources that are discrete conveyances, such as pipes or man-made ditches. Industrial, municipal, and other facilities such as shale gas production sites or commercial facilities that handle the disposal or treatment of shale gas produced water must obtain permits if they intend to discharge directly into surface waters 172,173. Large facilities usually have individual NPDES permits.
Water quality-based effluent standards). The intent of technology-based effluent limits in NPDES permits is to require treatment of effluent concentrations to less than a maximum allowable standard for point source discharges to the specific surface water body. This is based on available treatment technologies, while allowing the discharger to use any available control technique to meet the limits. For industrial (and other nonmunicipal) facilities, technology-based effluent limits are derived by: 1) using national effluent limitations guidelines and standards established by EPA, or 2) using best professional judgment (BPJ) on a case-by-case basis in the absence of national guidelines and standards.