By Franklin E. Zimring
Long ago decade, alarming experiences of juvenile violence have seemed with expanding frequency within the information media. Legislators around the usa have replied to this feeling of nationwide emergency via altering some of the legislation designed to deal with juvenile offenders. yet are we actually in the middle of a surge in formative years violence? extra to the purpose, what factors adolescence violence and what should still we do approximately it? Franklin Zimring bargains the definitive exam of adolescent violence within the usa either as a social phenomenon and a coverage challenge. This publication covers the diversity of teenage violence concerns within the Nineteen Nineties, from crime records to demographic projections to new laws. the result's an intensive debunking of Congressional predictions of "a coming hurricane of adlescent violence" and the half-baked coverage proposals that accompany such warnings. The e-book units forth finished and dispassionate analyses of 3 key components of teenybopper violence coverage: adolescent firearms ownership and use, criteria for move from juvenile to felony court docket jurisdiction, and felony sanctions for young people who kill. in the course of the booklet, the middle problems with early life violence within the Nineteen Nineties are tested with an exceptional measure of analytic rigor. Zimring additionally deals a suitable set of responses to formative years violence which are in line with a good destiny for the juvenile court docket and for America's kids. well timed and authoritative, American adolescence Violence provides scholars, students, and coverage makers a much-needed software with which to model a positive reaction to at least one of the nation's most annoying social ills.
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Extra info for American Youth Violence (Studies in Crime and Public Policy)
Robbery is another category that includes acts with a wide range of peril, from schoolyard extortions to armed invasions of banks. Thus, the general category is heterogeneous. Just knowing the crime category does not tell much about how life-threatening were the specific acts reported. Assaults are the Uniform Crime Report category for attacks that fail to meet the criteria for aggravated assault but are still regarded as criminal. Because most life-threatening attacks are upgraded to the aggravated category, the residual assault classification usually involves attacks that were not life-threatening.
For each of the three age groups in the figure, the male-to-female ratio is computed by assuming a fifty-fifty gender split in the population. Rape is omitted from the analysis. Males dominate arrests for violent crime for every category at every age; the male-to-female arrest ratios are never lower than four to one. This male dominance is well known. What is more surprising is the tendency for male-to-female arrests to be markedly higher during the adolescent years for homicide and robbery. The AMERICAN YOUTH VIOLENCE—A PROFILE 23 homicide arrests of males are fifteen times those of females under the age of 18 and more than sixteen times the female level at ages 18 to 20.
The 1995 rate dropped to 13 percent above the 1980 rate, and the 1996 arrest rate fell another 34 percent. By 1996, the robbery arrest rate was reported at 21 percent below the 1980 level. 1. First, there is no common pattern for youth arrests for violent crime during the 1980—1996 period. The rate change over the sixteen-year period ranges from —21 percent for robbery to +56 percent for aggravated assault. Homicide, which had the highest increase as recently as 1993, recorded a 34 percent gain by the end of 1996.