By Joseph Neisendorfer
The main glossy and thorough remedy of risky homotopy concept on hand. the focal point is on these equipment from algebraic topology that are wanted within the presentation of effects, confirmed by way of Cohen, Moore, and the writer, at the exponents of homotopy teams. the writer introduces a number of points of risky homotopy conception, together with: homotopy teams with coefficients; localization and of completion; the Hopf invariants of Hilton, James, and Toda; Samelson items; homotopy Bockstein spectral sequences; graded Lie algebras; differential homological algebra; and the exponent theorems about the homotopy teams of spheres and Moore areas. This e-book is appropriate for a direction in volatile homotopy concept, following a primary path in homotopy conception. it's also a worthwhile reference for either specialists and graduate scholars wishing to go into the sector.
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Extra resources for Algebraic Methods in Unstable Homotopy Theory
3 Universal coefficien exact sequences 17 yields for every pointed space X a long exact sequence k ρ β k → πn (X) − → πn (X; Z/kZ) − → πn −1 (X) − → πn −1 (X) . . · · · → πn (X) − Of course, the map k : S n → S n induces multiplication by k on the abelian homotopy group πn (X) (or the k-th power on the fundamental group π1 (X)). The map ρ is called a mod k reduction map and the map β is called a Bockstein. The above exact sequence is always an exact sequence of sets and an exact sequence of groups and homomorphisms except possibly at ρ β − π2 (X; Z/kZ) − → π1 (X) π2 (X) → when π2 (X; Z/kZ) is not a group.
These maps may not be unique up to homotopy. 4 we gave some conditions which guarantee uniqueness of these maps up to homotopy. On the other hand, it may be the case that G is a sequential limit of finitel generated subgroups and we may just make a choice of the realization of one stage into the next. We then realize the compositions to be consistent with these choices and the question of uniqueness vanishes. In any case, we get maps πn (X; Hα ) → πn (X; Hβ ) and as long as we have sufficien uniqueness we can take the direct limit and we defin πn (X; G) = lim→ πn (X; Hα ).
3. For all abelian groups A, there is an isomorphism H∗ (K(A, 1); Z/pZ) ∼ = E(Ap , 1) ⊗ Γ(p A, 2). We firs observe that the Hurewicz theorem is true for K(A, 1) with mod p coefficients In dimension n = 1, the mod p Hurewicz map ϕ is an isomorphism for K(A, 1). Hence, the mod p Hurewicz theorem is true for K(A, 1) and n = 1. On the other hand, if π1 (K(A, 1); Z/pZ) = Ap = 0, then the mod p Hurewicz map ϕ is an isomorphism in dimensions 1 and 2 and an epimorphism in dimension 3. Hence, the mod p Hurewicz theorem is true for K(A, 1) and n = 2.