By Horst Böhm, Klaus-Detlef Closs, Klaus Kühn (auth.), Jeffery Lewins, Martin Becker (eds.)
The Editors enjoy offering quantity thirteen of this annual evaluation sequence, consisting, as ordinary, of writer itative reports of well timed advancements within the technical fields of nuclear engineering, technological know-how, and teechnology. nobody locally we attempt to serve in a publish Harrisburg period will want convincing of the relevance of the 1st goods to be pointed out from the amount. Instru mentation for two-phase circulation measurements, by means of Banerjee and Lahey, has applicability within the engineering learn hard work atory and to energy reactors; the U. S. LWR nonetheless continues to be the dominant strength reactor variety and turns out prone to continue its carry if simply during the capital of current crops this century. Messrs. Bohm, Closs, and Kuhn, even though, have an extended time scale to recognize as they view for us the customers of nuclear waste disposal from a eu standpoint. they create out well the political points that can't be divorced from technical issues during this quarter, or within the extra militant phrases of war of words, during this enviornment, might be. we're happy to hold during this quantity complemen tary papers on mathematical equipment in nuclear engineering.
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Extra info for Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology
To what extent the cost of actinide separ- 32 H. BOHM ET AL. ation and transmutation would influence the aggregate cost of waste management cannot yet be said (52). VI. DISPOSAL CONCEPTS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES All countries either using or wanting to use nuclear power for electricity generation in some way or the other are confronted with the problem of radioactive waste disposal. Four or five years ago, the rule still was that each country would have to make its own provisions for disposal of waste from the operation of nuclear power stations, but that high-level waste was to be disposed of by those countries that had or planned reprocessing facilities.
Depending upon the concentration of other chemicals, the waste can be concentrated by a factor between 10 and 100 in this way. The simplest way of fixing aqueous concentrates is by mixing with hydraulic binders such as cement. Another method is stirring the aqueous concentrates and sludges, respectively, into hot bitumen. This at the same time causes the residual water to evaporate. The product is filled in drums while still hot and solidifies during cooling. One advantage of bituminizing, compared with cementing, is the much higher degree of concentration.
For this purpose, a number of pilot and laboratory scale plants have been built that are operated either on simulated or RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 23 genuine high-level wastE' solutions from reprocessing plants. A pilot vitrification plant (AVM) has been in operation under radioactive conditions at Marcoule, France, since July 1978. , it could handle the waste of about 12 GWe. Several tons of glass have been produced in it so far. The leaching rates of borosilicate glass indicated in the literature are in a range between 10- and 10-11 kg/mfs (l~, but most of these values have not been measured under conditions relevant to disposal.